Dini ni mfumo wa maishani

Dini ni mfumo wa maishani

Saturday, December 25, 2010

KILAJAMBO MAISHANI LINA MWANZO NA MWISHO




UPENDO UNA ALAMA MBILI MAISHANI.

AMBAZO NI:

1 MATENDO MAZURI

2 MANENO MAZURI


UTAMTAMBUA ANAEKUPENDA, PINDI UTAPATA UKWELI WA MANENO YAKE KATIKA MSINGI WA MATENDO KAMILIFU MAISHANI.NENO NAKUPENDA HULETA MAANA, PINDI LINAPOKUWA NA MUUNGANO WA TENDO LENYE MFUMO WA AMANI NA UTULIVU BAINA YA WAPENDANAO MAISHANI.

Uhusiano wa Krismas na Yesu

Yesu alikuwa Myahudi mwanamume aliyeishi miaka 2000 hivi iliyopita (labda 6 KK - 30 B.K.).



Kutokana na umuhimu wake katika historia ya binadamu, kwa kawaida miaka yote inahesabiwa kwanzia ujio wake (ulivyokadiriwa kimakosa katika karne ya 6).



Mazingira yake
Nchi ambayo Yesu alizaliwa akafundisha ni nchi ileile ambayo Mungu aliwaahidia Waisraeli tangu zamani za Abrahamu, ni nchi ileile waliyoiteka chini ya Yoshua, ni nchi ileile waliyoirudia kutoka utumwani Babeli.

Lakini wakati wote wa Agano Jipya, yaani tangu Yesu alipozaliwa hadi mwisho wa maisha ya mitume wake, nchi hiyo haikuwa huru, bali chini ya himaya ya Warumi, ingawa pengine hao waliwakabidhi vibaraka, yaani watawala wenyeji waliowekwa na wakoloni.

Vibaraka hao ni Herode Mkuu (37 KK-4 KK) na wazawa wake, ambao tena hawakuwa Waisraeli halisi bali Waedomu ingawa kabila lao lililazimishwa kuingia dini ya Kiyahudi karne iliyotangulia. Ukoo huo unajulikana kwa ukatili, uchu wa madaraka na uzinifu wake.

Vilevile maliwali wa Kirumi waliowekwa pengine kutawala nchi au sehemu fulani walionyesha mara nyingi ukatili na dharau kwa Waisraeli na dini yao, hata kusababisha chuki na mapigano kati ya jeshi na wananchi. Mfano mmojawapo ni Ponsyo Pilato aliyesimamia Uyahudi kuanzia mwaka 26 hadi 36 B.K.

Mbali na hayo, utawala wa Roma, ulioenea Ulaya Magharibi na Kusini, Afrika Kaskazini na nchi za Mashariki ya Kati kupakana na Iraq ya leo, kwa jumla ulihakikisha hali ya amani kwa muda wote wa Agano Jipya na karne za kwanza za Kanisa. Hali hiyo, pamoja na umoja wa dola hilo lote, na urahisi wa mawasiliano kwa njia ya barabara zilizotengenezwa na Warumi, na uenezi wa lugha ya kimataifa (Kiyunani yaani Kigiriki cha zamani), ilichangia kasi ya uenezaji wa habari njema (Injili). Lugha hiyo ndiyo iliyotumiwa na waandishi wote wa Agano Jipya ili vitabu vyao viwafaidishe watu wengi zaidi, ingawa baadhi yao hawakuijua vizuri.

Lugha asili ya Yesu na ya Mitume ilikuwa Kiaramu ambacho ni jamii ya Kiyahudi na ambacho polepole kilishika nafasi yake kati ya Wayahudi kuanzia karne ya sita K.K. Hao wote walitokea mkoa wa Galilaya, uliokuwa na mchanganyiko wa watu (Waisraeli na mataifa), kiasi kwamba huko Wayahudi wenyewe walifuata kwa urahisi desturi za Kiyunani hata wakadharauliwa na wenzao wa Kusini (Yerusalemu na mkoa wa Yudea).

Kati ya mikoa hiyo miwili ulienea mkoa wa Samaria ambao wakazi wake walijenga uadui mkubwa na Wayahudi baada ya uhamisho wa Babeli, walipokataliwa kuchangia ujenzi wa hekalu la pili la Yerusalemu.

[hariri] Maisha yake
Dionisi Mdogo, mmonaki aliyeanzisha (mwaka 533 hivi) mtindo wa kuhesabu miaka kuanzia kuzaliwa Yesu kurudi nyuma (K.K.) au kwenda mbele (B.K.), alikosea hesabu zake. Leo tunakisia Yesu alizaliwa mwaka 6 hivi K.K. kwa sababu alizaliwa Bethlehemu chini ya Herode Mkuu aliyefariki mwaka 4 K.K.

Huyo alipojaribu kumuua mtoto Yesu, familia takatifu ilikimbilia Misri mpaka baada ya kufa kwake. Hapo ikarudi Galilaya hata Yesu akajulikana kwa jina la kijiji cha Nazareti kilichodharauliwa na Wagalilaya pia. Ndipo alipokulia na kuishi akifanya kazi ya ufundi.

Mwaka 26 hivi B.K. ndugu yake Yohane Mbatizaji aliacha maisha ya jangwani na kuanza kuhubiri toba kandokando ya mto Yordani. Kwa kuwa Waisraeli walikosa manabii kwa muda mrefu, na walitamani sana ukombozi, walimuendea kwa wingi hata wakamtia hofu Herode Antipa.

Ingawa huyo akamfunga mapema akamuua, kazi ya Yohane ilikuwa imetimia kwa sababu aliweza kuwaandaa Waisraeli wengi (hasa watu wadogo na wakosefu) wampokee Yesu aliyebatizwa naye. Katika nafasi hiyo Yohane alimtambulisha kama Mwanakondoo wa Mungu aondoaye dhambi ya ulimwengu.

Ndipo Yesu naye alipoanza kuhubiri, lakini pia kutenda miujiza ya kila aina, akapata haraka wafuasi wengi. Kati yao akachagua Mitume wake 12 kama msingi mpya wa taifa la Mungu. Alifanya kazi hizo kuanzia Galilaya, akitangaza ujio wa ufalme wa Mungu, kwa maana ya kwamba ufalme uliotazamiwa na Wayahudi umewajia kwa njia yake.

Ingawa hakupitia shule yoyote ya Biblia, Yesu alionekana anafundisha vizuri kuliko walimu wa sheria wa kawaida, kama mtu mwenye mamlaka juu ya Torati. Mafundisho yake yalilingana na yale ya Mafarisayo kuliko na yale ya Masadukayo, lakini alishindana pia na hao wa kwanza.

Kijicho na upinzani vikazidi hasa Yerusalemu, walipoanza kufanya njama za kumuua. Ingawa Yesu alijua hayo, alijikaza kwenda katika mji mtakatifu autangazie habari njema na kufia huko. Baada ya kupokewa kwa shangwe kabla ya sherehe ya Pasaka ya mwaka 30 (au 33) akakamatwa na baraza la Israeli kwa tuhuma ya kufuru ya kujilinganisha na Mungu, halafu akakabidhiwa kwa liwali wa Kirumi aliyekuwa na mamlaka ya kutoa adhabu ya kifo. Baada ya kikao ambapo Wayahudi walitafuta kisingizio cha kisiasa, Ponsyo Pilato akalazimika kuagiza Yesu asulubiwe, na kisha kufa kwake kaburi lilindwe na askari.

Hata hivyo siku ya tatu kaburi likaonekana tupu, na Yesu akaanza kuwatokea wanafunzi wake wa kike na wa kiume kwa muda wa siku arubaini, halafu akapaa mbinguni mbele ya macho yao.

Habari hizo zikatangazwa kwa sauti tu kwa miaka kadhaa, halafu zikaanza kuandikwa. Kanisa linaheshimu kwa namna ya pekee, kama ushuhuda mkuu juu ya maisha na mafundisho ya Yesu na kama moyo wa Maandiko matakatifu yote, Injili nne zilizoandikwa na Marko, Mathayo, Mwinjili Luka na Yohane kati ya mwaka 65 na 100 hivi.

[hariri] Imani juu yake
Waumini wake wanaunda Kanisa la Kikristo ambalo linapatikana leo katika madhehebu mengi. Karibu wote wanamwamini kuwa Mungu aliyechukua umbile la mwanadamu au, kwa lugha nyingine, kuwa Mwana wa Mungu. Wakristo wengine wanaamini kuwa yeye ni mtume wa pekee wa Mungu ila sio Mungu.

Katika dini ya Uislamu, Yesu anajulikana kama Nabii Isa. Waislamu wanaamini kuwa yeye alikuwa ni nabii wa Mungu ila hakuwa mwana wa Mungu wala Mungu.

[hariri] Maadhimisho yake
Maisha yake yamekuwa msingi wa sikukuu mbalimbali zinazosheherekewa katika nchi nyingi duniani, kama vile Noeli auKrismasi (kuzaliwa kwake), Epifania (kuonekana kwake na kubatizwa kwake), Majilio (kuandaliwa ujio wake), Kwaresima (mafungo na mateso yake), Ijumaa Kuu (kifo chake); muhimu kuliko zote ni Pasaka (kufufuka kwake).

[hariri] Misingi ya ujuzi wetu juu yake
Yesu hakuacha maandiko yoyote. Habari zake zinapatikana hasa katika Biblia, kwa namna ya pekee katika Injili.

Nje ya Ukristo kuna habari fupi kuhusu Yesu katika maandiko ya waandishi Waroma, Wagiriki na Wayahudi. Habari hizi zinaangaliwa sana kwa sababu zimetungwa na watu wasiomwamini Yesu. Kwa ujumla zinathibitisha ya kwamba Yesu alikuwepo, alikuwa na wafuasi huko Roma na ya kwamba awali Waroma hawakuelewa tofauti kati ya wafuasi wake na Wayahudi. Muhimu ni hasa:

1. Mtaalamu Myahudi Flavius Josephus aliandika mnamo 90 B.K. kitabu cha „Antiquitates Judaicae“ (Habari za historia ya Kiyahudi) akitaja kifo cha „Yakobo ndugu wa Yesu“ (sura ya 20, 200).

2. Mwandishi Mroma Tacitus aliandika mnamo mwaka 117 ya kwamba Kaisari Nero alishtaki kikundi cha “Chrestiani” ya kuwa wamechoma moto mji wa Roma. Aliongeza: “Mtu ambaye ni asili ya jina hili ni Chrestus aliyeuawa wakati wa Tiberio kwa amri ya Pontio Pilato” (Annales XV,44).

3. Mwandishi Mroma Svetonius alimtaja “Chrestos” katika kitabu chake juu ya maisha ya Kaisari Claudius (25,4) ya kwamba huyu amesababisha fujo kati ya Wayahudi wa Roma hivyo Kaisari aliwafukuza mjini.

4. Mwanasiasa Mroma Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus aliacha barua kadhaa zinazotaja Wakristo mnamo mwaka 100 B.K. Alimwuliza Kaisari Traianus jinsi ya kushughulikia Wakristo waliokataa kutoa sadaka mbele ya sanamu za Kaisari.





Krismasi (pia Noeli)



Krismasi (pia Noeli) ni sikukuu ambako Wakristo husheherekea kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo zaidi ya miaka 2000 iliyopita. Kwa kawaida husheherekewa tarehe 25 Desemba katika Ukristo wa magharibi na tarehe 6 Januari katika ule wa mashariki.





Historia ya Krismasi

Uchoraji wa Kiorthodoksi unaoonyesha kuzaliwa kwake Kristo. Yesu anaonekana amevikwa sanda na kulazwa kaburini, kwa maana alizaliwa ili atukomboe kwa kifo chake


Tarehe halisi ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu haijulikani kwa sababu utamaduni wa Wayahudi wa wakati ule haukuwa na sherehe au kumbukumbu ya siku ya kuzaliwa.

Lakini baadaye Ukristo ulienea katika Dola la Roma na kati ya mataifa yaliyokuwa na kawaida ya kuzingatia siku ya kuzaliwa. Hivyo ilijitokeza hamu ya kusheherekea pia sikukuu ya kuzaliwa kwake Kristo. Ndiyo asili ya Sikukuu ya Krismasi.

Tangu mwanzo wa karne ya 3 BK kuna kumbukumbu ya waandishi mbalimbali waliojadili tarehe ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo.

Habari za kwanza kabisa za makadirio ya tarehe ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu zinapatikana kutoka Misri mnamo mwaka 200. Mwandishi Mkristo Klemens wa Alexandria (kitabu cha Stromateis I, xxi) alilalamikia udadisi wa wataalamu kadhaa wa Misri waliodai kwamba wamekadiria tarehe hiyo katika mwezi Mei, wengine katika Aprili. Alisema pia kuwa kikundi cha Kikristo cha wafuasi wa Basilides huko Misri walisheherekea Epifania pamoja na kuzaliwa kwake Yesu tarehe 6 Januari.

Labda kadirio la tarehe ya Desemba 25 pia lina asili katika Misri. Kuanzia mwaka 200 (kwa mara ya kwanza katika maandishi ya Sixtus Julius Africanus) tunasikia kwamba wataalamu wa Misri walifikiri tarehe 25 Machi ilikuwa tarehe ya kufa kwake Kristo na pia siku ya kuzaliwa kwake. Kwa kuongeza miezi tisa ya mimba inajitokeza 25 Desemba kama tarehe ya kuzaliwa.

Mwaka wa liturujia
Magharibi
Majilio
Krismasi
Kipindi cha Noeli
Mama wa Mungu
Epifania
Ubatizo wa Bwana
Kwaresima
Siku tatu kuu za Pasaka
Pasaka
Kupaa Bwana
Pentekoste
Kugeuka sura
Kipindi cha kawaida

Mashariki
Sikukuu ya msalaba
Mfungo wa Krismasi
Krismasi
Epifania
Kwaresima kuu
Pasaka
Pentekoste
Mfungo wa Mitume
Sherehe kuu
Kugeuka sura
Kulala kwa Mama wa Mungu
Ulinzi wa Mama wa Mungu


Inaonekana tarehe 25 Desemba ilijitokeza wakati huo. Kuna taarifa ya mwaka 204 kutoka Ipolito wa Roma kwamba tarehe 25 Desemba ilikuwa sikukuu ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo.

Wataalamu mbalimbali walidai kwamba Kanisa lilipachika sikukuu ya Kristo kwenye tarehe hiyo kwa nia ya kuchukua nafasi ya sikukuu ya jua kama mungu "Sol invictus". Lakini pengine mambo yalikwenda kinyume, yaani kwamba Makaisari walianzisha sikukuu hiyo halafu wakaipanga tarehe ya Krismasi ili kushindana na Ukristo uliokuwa bado chini ya dhuluma.

Aliyeingiza sikukuu ya Kuzaliwa Jua (Mitra) huko Roma ni Eliogabalus (kaisari kuanzia 218 hadi 222). Baadaye Aurelianus akaithibitisha rasmi mwaka 273, hatimate ikahamishiwa tarehe 25 Desemba. Wakati wa Licinius (308-324) sikukuu hiyo ilikuwa ikiadhimishwa bado tarehe 19 Desemba. (Taz. maandishi yaliyotajwa na Allan S. Hoey katika ukurasa 480 (rejeo 128) wa Official Policy towards Oriental Cults in the Roman Army, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (70) 1939, pp 456-481).

Kutoka Roma, uliokuwa mji mkuu wa Dola la Roma, sherehe ya 25 Desemba ilienea kote katika Ukristo.

Wakristo wengi husheherekea tarehe 25 Desemba (Wakatoliki, Waprotestanti, sehemu ya Waorthodoksi). Kati ya Waorthodoksi kuna tarehe nyingine, hasa 6 Januari kutokana na tofauti katika kalenda.




Habari za Krismasi katika Biblia




Habari za Krismasi kama sherehe hazipatikani katika Biblia kwa sababu zilizotajwa hapa juu.

Lakini hasa vitabu viwili vya Agano Jipya vina habari za kuzaliwa kwake Yesu, yaani Injili za Mathayo na Luka.



Katika Injili ya Mathayo





Mathayo anasimulia habari hizo katika mlango wa kwanza kuanzia aya 18 na katika mlango wa pili.

Bikira Maria alipata mimba wakati alipokuwa mchumba wa Yosefu. Yosefu alitaka kumwacha lakini aliambiwa na malaika aanze kuishi naye na kumkubali mtoto kama wake kwa kumpa jina "Yesu".

Mamajusi kutoka mashariki waliwatembelea na kuwaletea zawadi kwa sababu waliona nyota ya pekee iliyokuwa kwao alama ya kuzaliwa kwa mfalme mpya katika Uyahudi ikawaongoza hadi Yerusalemu. Lakini walipompitia mfalme Herode Mkuu, huyo alikasirika akimwogopa mfalme mpya. Hata hivyo aliwaelekeza Bethehemu kadiri ya utabiri wa nabii Mika.

Yosefu alipata tena ujumbe kutoka kwa malaika akaondoka na mtoto na Maria kukimbilia Misri kabla ya askari wa Herode hawajaweza kumuua Yesu.

Baada ya kifo cha Herode walirudi kutoka Misri lakini hawakuenda tena Bethlehemu bali kuhamia Nazareti katika mkoa wa Galilaya.



Katika Injili ya Luka




Katika taarifa ya Luka (mlango wa 1 na 2) Maria alipokea huko Nazareti ujumbe wa malaika mkuu Gabrieli kwamba atapata mimba na mtoto wa pekee.

Yosefu na Maria walikwenda Bethlehemu kwa sababu ya sensa iliyowataka kwenda katika mji alikotokea Yosefu. Hapo Yesu alizaliwa katika hori la kulishia wanyama; wachungaji mabondeni walitangaziwa na malaika habari hiyo wakaja kumwona mtoto.

Baada ya kuzaliwa wazazi walimpeleka Yesu Yerusalemu katika hekalu kufuatana na sheria ya Agano la Kale (Kitabu cha Kutoka 13,2; 13,15) halafu wakarudi kwao Nazareti.




Habari za Krismasi katika Korani




Korani pia ina habari za kuzaliwa kwake Yesu (nabii Isa).

Sura ya tatu (Al Imran, 42-47) ina habari za tangazo la malaika kwa Bikira Mariamu zinazofanana na Luka 1.

Sura ya 19 (Mariamu, 16-34) inarudia tangazo la malaika kwa Mariamu na inasimulia kuzaliwa kwake Yesu chini ya mti wa mtende, halafu majadiliano kati ya Mariamu na ndugu zake. Mtoto mchanga Yesu akaanza kusema wakati wa kuzaliwa akimtetea mama yake dhidi ya ndugu zake.




Krismasi katika maisha ya binadamu




Watu wote ni wakosefu na kujenga mazingira maovu hata wanayakinai na kutamani wamuone mtu tofauti, yaani mwema na mtakatifu. Pengine wanadhani fulani ni mwema kabisa, kumbe siyo.

Haja hiyo inaturudia sisi: kwa nini nisiwe mimi mtu wa namna hiyo? Kwa nini nisianze na moja kama kwa kuzaliwa upya kabla sijawadai wengine? Zaidi tena, haja kuu ya binadamu ni kumuona Mungu mwenyewe: lakini wapi, lini, namna gani




Krismasi katika liturujia




Kama kawaida, imani na liturujia ya Kikristo zinaitikia haja za binadamu. Kipindi cha Noeli kinatimiza haja tulizozitaja, kwa kuwa anazaliwa mtu mpya kabisa ambaye anatuvutia kwa wema wake na ambaye tukimuona tumemuona Mungu, tena tukimpokea tunazaliwa upya kama wana wa Mungu.

“Leo amezaliwa kwa ajili yenu Mwokozi, ndiye Kristo Bwana”. Tunapoadhimisha Noeli tangazo hilo la malaika kwa wachungaji linatufikia sisi. Si kujidanganya, kana kwamba Yesu angezaliwa leo, wala hatukumbuki tu tukio la zamani, bali fumbo la kuzaliwa Bwana linatufikia leo katika liturujia na kutuletea neema zake. Hivyo tunaweza tukazaliwa upya kwa kushiriki kuzaliwa kwa kichwa chetu.

Liturujia inashangilia hivi, “Lo! Mabadilishano ya ajabu! Mwana wa Mungu anakuwa mtu kusudi mtu awe mwana wa Mungu!”. Tena si binadamu tu, bali viumbe vyote vinapata heshima mpya kwa Neno wa milele kujifanya kiumbe

what is Christmas



Christmas[3] or Christmas Day[4][5] is a holiday observed generally on December 25[6] to commemorate the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity.[7][8] The date is not known to be the actual birthday of Jesus, and may have initially been chosen to correspond with either the day exactly nine months after some early Christians believed Jesus had been conceived,[9] the date of the Roman winter solstice,[10] or one of various ancient winter festivals.[9][11] Christmas is central to the Christmas and holiday season, and in Christianity marks the beginning of the larger season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days.[12]

Although nominally a Christian holiday, Christmas is also celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians worldwide,[1][13][14] and many of its popular celebratory customs have pre-Christian or secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift-giving, music, an exchange of greeting cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and the display of various decorations; including Christmas trees, lights, garlands, mistletoe, nativity scenes, and holly. In addition, several figures, known as Saint Nicholas and certain mythological figures such as Father Christmas and Santa Claus among other names, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season.[15]

Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world




Etymology



The word Christmas originated as a compound meaning "Christ's Mass". It is derived from the Middle English Christemasse and Old English Cristes mæsse, a phrase first recorded in 1038.[8] "Cristes" is from Greek Christos and "mæsse" is from Latin missa (the holy mass). In Greek, the letter Χ (chi), is the first letter of Christ, and it, or the similar Roman letter X, has been used as an abbreviation for Christ since the mid-16th century.[16] Hence, Xmas is sometimes used as an abbreviation for Christmas.

Celebration
Further information: Christmas worldwide
Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the world, including many whose populations are mostly non-Christian. In some non-Christian countries, periods of former colonial rule introduced the celebration (e.g. Hong Kong); in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday. Countries such as Japan and Korea, where Christmas is popular despite there being only a small number of Christians, have adopted many of the secular aspects of Christmas, such as gift-giving, decorations and Christmas trees. Notable countries in which Christmas is not a formal public holiday include People's Republic of China, (excepting Hong Kong and Macao), Japan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Thailand, Nepal, Iran, Turkey and North Korea. Christmas celebrations around the world can vary markedly in form, reflecting differing cultural and national traditions.

Among countries with a strong Christian tradition, a variety of Christmas celebrations have developed that incorporate regional and local cultures. For Christians, participating in a religious service plays an important part in the recognition of the season. Christmas, along with Easter, is the period of highest annual church attendance. In Catholic countries, the people hold religious processions or parades in the days preceding Christmas. In other countries, secular processions or parades featuring Santa Claus and other seasonal figures are often held. Family reunions and the exchange of gifts are a widespread feature of the season. Gift giving takes place on Christmas Day in most countries. Others practice gift giving on December 6, Saint Nicholas Day, and January 6, Epiphany.


The Nativity by Charles-François Poerson, 1667.Date of celebration
For centuries, Christian writers accepted that Christmas was the actual date on which Jesus was born.[17] In the early 18th century, scholars began proposing alternative explanations. Isaac Newton argued that the date of Christmas was selected to correspond with the winter solstice,[10] which the Romans called bruma and celebrated on December 25.[18] In 1743, German Protestant Paul Ernst Jablonski argued Christmas was placed on December 25 to correspond with the Roman solar holiday Dies Natalis Solis Invicti and was therefore a "paganization" that debased the true church.[11] According to Judeo-Christian tradition, creation as described in the Genesis creation narrative occurred on the date of the spring equinox, i.e. March 25 on the Roman calendar. This date is now celebrated as Annunciation and as the anniversary of Incarnation.[19] In 1889, Louis Duchesne suggested that the date of Christmas was calculated as nine months after Annunciation, the traditional date of the conception of Jesus.[20]

The December 25 date may have been selected by the church in Rome in the early 4th century. At this time, a church calendar was created and other holidays were also placed on solar dates: "It is cosmic symbolism...which inspired the Church leadership in Rome to elect the winter solstice, December 25, as the birthday of Christ, and the summer solstice as that of John the Baptist, supplemented by the equinoxes as their respective dates of conception. While they were aware that pagans called this day the 'birthday' of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas," according to modern scholar S.E. Hijmans.[21]

However, today, whether or not the birth date of Jesus is on December 25 is not considered to be an important issue in mainstream Christian denominations;[22][23][24] rather, celebrating the coming of God into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity is considered to be the primary meaning of Christmas.[22][23][24]

Some Christians have called for opposition to the commercialization of Christmas, since the exchange of purchased gifts has nothing to do with the philosophy of Christ. [25]

Orthodox Christian Churches
For details on religious observances, see Christmas Eve.
Eastern Orthodox national churches, including those of Russia, Georgia, Egypt, Ukraine, the Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and the Greek Patriarchate of Jerusalem mark feasts using the older Julian Calendar. December 25 on that calendar currently corresponds to January 7 on the more widely used Gregorian calendar. However, the majority of Orthodox Christians began using the Revised Julian Calendar in the early 20th century, which corresponds exactly to the Gregorian Calendar. Therefore, most Orthodox Churches celebrate Christmas on the same day as Western Christianity. Oriental Orthodox churches also use their own calendars, which are generally similar to the Julian calendar. The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the nativity in combination with the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. Armenian churches customarily use the Gregorian calendar, but some use the Julian calendar and thus celebrate Christmas Day on January 19, and Christmas Eve on January 18 (according to the Gregorian calendar).




Orthodox Christian Churches



For details on religious observances, see Christmas Eve.
Eastern Orthodox national churches, including those of Russia, Georgia, Egypt, Ukraine, the Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and the Greek Patriarchate of Jerusalem mark feasts using the older Julian Calendar. December 25 on that calendar currently corresponds to January 7 on the more widely used Gregorian calendar. However, the majority of Orthodox Christians began using the Revised Julian Calendar in the early 20th century, which corresponds exactly to the Gregorian Calendar. Therefore, most Orthodox Churches celebrate Christmas on the same day as Western Christianity. Oriental Orthodox churches also use their own calendars, which are generally similar to the Julian calendar. The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the nativity in combination with the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. Armenian churches customarily use the Gregorian calendar, but some use the Julian calendar and thus celebrate Christmas Day on January 19, and Christmas Eve on January 18 (according to the Gregorian calendar).[26]

Commemorating Jesus’ birth
Main articles: Annunciation, Nativity of Jesus, and Child Jesus
Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary as a fulfillment of the Old Testament's Messianic prophecy.[27] The Bible contains two accounts which describe the events surrounding Jesus' birth. Depending on one's perspective, these accounts either differ from each other or tell two versions of the same story [28] [29][30][31] These biblical accounts are found in the Gospel of Matthew, namely Matthew 1:18, and the Gospel of Luke, specifically Luke 1:26 and 2:40. According to these accounts, Jesus was born to Mary, assisted by her husband Joseph, in the city of Bethlehem.

According to popular tradition, the birth took place in a stable, surrounded by farm animals, though neither the stable nor the animals are specifically mentioned in the Biblical accounts. However, a manger is mentioned in Luke 2:7, where it states, "She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn." Early iconographic representations of the nativity placed the animals and manger within a cave (located, according to tradition, under the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem). Shepherds from the fields surrounding Bethlehem were told of the birth by an angel, and were the first to see the child.[32] The Gospel of Matthew also describes a visit by several Magi, or astrologers, who bring gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh to the infant Jesus. The visitors were said to be following a mysterious star, commonly known as the Star of Bethlehem, believing it to announce the birth of a king of the Jews.[33] The commemoration of this visit, the Feast of Epiphany celebrated on January 6, is the formal end of the Christmas season in some churches.


Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) (c. 1500–10), by Italian painter Giorgio da CastelfrancoChristians celebrate Christmas in various ways. In addition to this day being one of the most important and popular for the attendance of church services, there are other devotions and popular traditions. In some Christian denominations, children re-enact the events of the Nativity with animals to portray the event with more realism or sing carols that reference the event. Some Christians also display a small re-creation of the Nativity, known as a Nativity scene or crèche, in their homes, using figurines to portray the key characters of the event. Prior to Christmas Day, the Eastern Orthodox Church practices the 40-day Nativity Fast in anticipation of the birth of Jesus, while much of Western Christianity celebrates four weeks of Advent. The final preparations for Christmas are made on Christmas Eve.

A long artistic tradition has grown of producing painted depictions of the nativity in art. Nativity scenes are traditionally set in a barn or stable and include Mary, Joseph, the child Jesus, angels, shepherds and the Three Wise Men: Balthazar, Melchior, and Caspar, who are said to have followed a star, known as the Star of Bethlehem, and arrived after his birth.



Decorations and symbols


Main article: Christmas decoration
See also: Christmas tree, Christmas lights, Christmas stocking, and Christmas ornament

Clifton Mill in Clifton, Ohio is the site of this Christmas display with over 3.5 million lights.The practice of putting up special decorations at Christmas has a long history. From pre-Christian times, people in the Roman Empire brought branches from evergreen plants indoors in the winter. Decorating with greenery was also part of Jewish tradition : "Now on the first day you shall take for yourselves the foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. " (Leviticus 23:40)

Christians incorporated such customs in their developing practices. In the 15th century, it was recorded that in London it was the custom at Christmas for every house and all the parish churches to be "decked with holm, ivy, bays, and whatsoever the season of the year afforded to be green".[35] The heart-shaped leaves of ivy were said to symbolise the coming to earth of Jesus, while holly was seen as protection against pagans and witches, its thorns and red berries held to represent the Crown of Thorns worn by Jesus at the crucifixion and the blood he shed.[36][37]

Nativity scenes are known from 10th-century Rome. They were popularised by Saint Francis of Asissi from 1223, quickly spreading across Europe.[38] Different types of decorations developed across the Christian world, dependent on local tradition and available resources. The first commercially produced decorations appeared in Germany in the 1860s, inspired by paper chains made by children.[39] In countries where a representation of the Nativity Scene is very popular, people are encouraged to compete and create the most original or realistic ones. Within some families, the pieces used to make the representation are considered a valuable family heirloom.

The traditional colors of Christmas are green and red.[40] White, silver and gold are also popular. Red symbolizes the blood of Jesus, which was shed in his crucifixion, while green symbolizes eternal life, and in particular the evergreen tree, which does not lose its leaves in the winter.[40][37]


A Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center, New York CityThe Christmas tree is considered by some as Christianisation of pagan tradition and ritual surrounding the Winter Solstice, which included the use of evergreen boughs, and an adaptation of pagan tree worship.[41] The English language phrase "Christmas tree" is first recorded in 1835[42] and represents an importation from the German language. The modern Christmas tree tradition is believed to have begun in Germany in the 18th century[41] though many argue that Martin Luther began the tradition in the 16th century.[43][44] From Germany the custom was introduced to Britain, first via Queen Charlotte, wife of George III, and then more successfully by Prince Albert during the reign of Queen Victoria. By 1841 the Christmas tree had become even more widespread throughout Britain.[45] By the 1870s, people in the United States had adopted the custom of putting up a Christmas tree.[46] Christmas trees may be decorated with lights and ornaments.

Since the 19th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas. Other popular holiday plants include holly, mistletoe, red amaryllis, and Christmas cactus. Along with a Christmas tree, the interior of a home may be decorated with these plants, along with garlands and evergreen foliage. The display of Christmas villages has also become a tradition in many homes during this season. The outside of houses may be decorated with lights and sometimes with illuminated sleighs, snowmen, and other Christmas figures. Other traditional decorations include bells, candles, candy canes, stockings, wreaths, and angels.

Christmas lights and banners may be hung along streets, music played from speakers, and Christmas trees placed in prominent places.[47] It is common in many parts of the world for town squares and consumer shopping areas to sponsor and display decorations. Rolls of brightly colored paper with secular or religious Christmas motifs are manufactured for the purpose of wrapping gifts.

In some countries, Christmas decorations are traditionally taken down on Twelfth Night, the evening of January 5.

Obama asaini sheria ya mashoga jeshini



Rais Barack Obama ametia saini sheria ambayo kwa mara ya kwanza itaruhusu mashoga jeshini kuwa wazi na hali zao za kijinsia bila ya kuwa na wasiwasi wa kufukuzwa kazi.



Rais Barack Obama
Rais Obama amesema mabadiliko hayo yataimarisha jeshi na kwamba ilikuwa ni hatua sahihi ya kuchukua.

Katika sera ya zamani, iliyojulikana kama "Usiulize, Usiseme" iliruhusu mashoga kufanya kazi jeshini, lakini kwa kuweka hali ya jinsia zao siri.


Sera hiyo ilianzishwa miaka kumi na saba iliyopita wakati wa utawala wa rais Bill Clinton,


ikichukua nafasi ya kupiga marufuku mashoga jeshini.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

KANISA Katoliki katika Jimbo la Sumbawanga, mkoani Rukwa, limevunja ukimya na kunena kuhusu mambo yaliyosababisha waumini wake, kutengwa



Mussa Mwangoka,
Sumbawanga

KANISA Katoliki katika Jimbo la Sumbawanga, mkoani Rukwa, limevunja ukimya na kunena kuhusu mambo yaliyosababisha waumini wake, kutengwa na wengine kuwekewa pingamizi kwa kukufuru utatu mtakatifu wakati wa uchaguzi mkuu, uliomalizika Oktoba 31 mwaka huu.

Hatua hiyo imekuja siku kadhaa baada ya baadhi ya vyombo vya habari, kuandika na kuchapisha habari kuhusu sakata hilo huku kanisa likiwa halizungumzi lolote.

Kitendo hicho, kiliwafanya baadhiya wananchi waliowahi kusoma habari hizo kutaka kujua ukweli kuhusu madai kuwa kanisa, limewatenga baadhi ya waumini wake kwa kukufuru utatu mtakatifu wakati wa uchaguzi mkuu.

Jana, Wakili wa Kiaskofu katika Jimbo la Sumbawanga, Padri Modest Katonto, alikiri kuhusu adhabu hiyo kwa baadhi ya waumini wa kanisa hilo na kwamba hakuna anayeweza kuitengua.

"Kanisa lingependa ifahamike kuwa hakuna mamlaka yoyote ya kidunia, inayoweza kuwaoondolea waumini hao adhabu hiyo, isipokuwa kwa jitihada za mtu mwenyewe binafsi kujipatanisha na kanisa kwa wale waliotengwa," alisema Padri Katonto.
Kanisa hilo pia limesema halina itikadi za kisiasa na kwamba adhabu zimetolewa kwa waumini hao, hazijali wadhifa wa mtu yeyote katika jamii.

Alisema kilichozingatiwa ni makosa ya kwenda kinyume cha imani na kushabikia mafundisho potofu.

Wakili huyo wa kiaskofu, alisema waumini waliokumbwa na adhabu hizo wako katika makundi mawili na kwamba la kwanza, ni la waliotengwa kwa kosa la kujilinganisha na utatu mtakatifu na kushabikia mafundisho potofu, huku wakijua wazi kuwa kitendo hicho ni cha uovu.

Kwa mujibu wa Padri Katonto, kundi hilo lina jumla ya waumini 27.
Alisema kwa mujibu wa sheria ya kanisa namba 1364, kosa lililofanywa na watu hao, linawatenga na umoja wa kanisa hata bila kutangaziwa au kujulishwa na kiongozi wa kanisa.

Alisema chini ya adhabu waliyopewa, waumini hao wamepoteza haki ya kushiriki katika idaba zote za hadhara za kanisa katoliki, kutoshiriki katika maadhimisho ya sakramenti, kutopokea akramenti na kutoshirki katika shughuli za uongozi wa kanisa .
Alisema "ikiwa aliyetengwa atahudhuria au atakuwepo katika mazingira ya inapofanyika ibada, lazima aondoke au au kama hatatoka, ibada itasitishwa. Na ikiwa atakufa bila kutubu, hatapewa maziko ya kanisa," alisema Padri Katonto.
Padri Kantonto alisema kundi la pili ni la waumini waliowekewa pingamizi ambao hata hivyo, hakutaja idadi yao.

Alisema chini ya pingamizi walilowekewa, waumini hao wananyimwa haki ya kupata huduma za kanisa kwa muda, wakati makosa yao yakichunguzwa na kwamba kama itabainika kuwa hawakufanya, watarudishiwa huduma zote.

Alisema hata hivyo, pingamizi hilo haliwaondowi watu wa kundi katika umoja na kanisa, kama ilivyo kwa waliotengwa.

Alisema katika kipindi cha uchaguzi mkuu, kanisa lilijitahidi kuwakumbusha waumini wake kuhusu nafasi zao na wajibu wao, lakini kinyume chake kanisa limeshuhudia, na kusikia baadhi ya waumini wakionyesha utovu wa nidhamu kwa kukufuru utatu mtakatifu.

"Walikufuru utatu mtakatifu, baadhi ya wagombea wakajifafanisha na Mungu mwenye nafsi tatu, kukufuru msalaba mtakatifu wa kanisa kwa kuuzika, kukejeli, kutukana na kudharau viongozi wa kanisa na wakristo wenzao," alisisitiza Padri Katonto.

Alisema vitendo hivyo vimesikitisha mno mama kanisa kwa sababu vimeambatana na usaliti wa imani na maadili ya kikristo.

"Lakini pia vitendo hivyo ni makwazo kwa wana kanisa na wakristo wa madhehebu mengine na watu wote wenye mapenzi mema," alisema.
Alisema wanaotenda makosa kama hayo kwa mujibu wa sheria, kanisa, lina haki ya msingi ya kuwaadhibu na kwamba adhabu hizo si ngeni ndani ya kanisa.
Kasisi huyo alifafanua kuwa shutuma dhidi ya kanisa kuwa limewatenga na kuweka pingamizi waumini wake kwa sababu za itikadi za kisiasa ikiwa ni pamoja na kuipigia kura CCM ni uwongo na uzushi wenye lengo la uchochezi.

"Kanisa Katoliki linahoji hivi uchochezi huo unafanywa kwa maslahi na manufaa ya nani," alisema.
Alisisitiza kuwa kamwe kanisa halitokaa kimya bila kukemea uovu kwa hofu ya vitisho na uzushi unaolenga katika kutetea maslahi ya kundi la watu wachache wasio na dhamira safi

Bashir asalimu amri kuhusu kura ya maoni


Mwanamke akicharazwa viboko.

Sheria za kiislamu zitakuwa kali Kaskazini.
Rais wa marekani Barrack Obama ametangaza kuwa swala la Sudan ni mojawepo wa ajenda kubwa ya mashauri ya nchi za kigeni ya serikali yake.

Rais Omar Bashir.

Msemaji wa Ikulu ya White House Mike Hammer amesema bwana Obama amekwishawaandikia barua viongozi wa Afrika akiwataka kuunga mkono kura ya maoni kuhusu uhuru wa Sudan Kusini itakayoandaliwa kwa njia ya amani.

Awali rais wa Sudan, Omar al-Bashir, alisema Sudan Kaskazini itaimarisha sheria za kiislamu ikiwa Sudan kusini itapiga kura ya kujipatia uhuru.


Bwana Bashir amesema kwamba ikiwa taifa hilo litagawanywa, katiba ya Sudan itabadilishwa , Kiarabu itakuwa ndiyo lugha ya pekee, dini ya pekee itakuwa ni Uislamu, na sharia ndiyo katiba ya pekee itakayotumika nchini humo.

Mwandishi wa BBC mjini Khartoum amesema maneno ya bwana Bashir yanawatia hofu raia wa Sudan Kusini ambao si waislamu na ambao wanaishi Kaskazini.

Katika mkataba wa amani wa mwaka 2005 uliomaliza vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe, raia wa Sudan Kusini walilindwa dhidi ya makali ya sharia.

Monday, December 13, 2010

Uingereza yafikiria kumzuia Terry Jones

Waziri wa Mambo ya Ndani ya Nchi wa Uingereza, Theresa May, anasema, anazingatia kama anafaa kumpiga marufuku kasisi mmoja wa Marekani, kuingia Uingereza au la.



Terry Jones


Kasisi Terry Jones, alizusha tafrani ya kimataifa mapema mwaka huu, alipotangaza mpango wa kuchoma moto Koran, wakati wa kukumbuka mashambulio ya tarehe 11 Septemba.


Kasisi Terry Jones, aliiambia BBC, anapanga kuzuru Uingereza, kuitikia mwaliko wa chama chenye msimamo mkali wa mrengo wa kulia, English Defence League.


Wanaharakati wamesema, Kasisi Terry Jones akiingia nchini Uingereza, kunaweza kuzuka hisia dhidi ya WaIslamu

Saturday, November 27, 2010

Kanisa Katoliki Sumbawanga bado tete


Mwandishi Wetu, Sumbawanga

SAKATA la mamia ya waumini wa Kanisa Katoliki Jimbo la Sumbawanga mkoani Rukwa kutengwa na wengine kufukuzwa waumini ndani ya kanisa hilo limezua sura mpya, kwa wakazi wa mkoa huo huku viongozi wa kanisa hilo wakivitaka vyombo vya habari kuwa makini wakati wa kutoa taarifa za suala hilo.


Kanisa hilo, limenukuliwa hivi karibuni kuwasimamisha waumini wake karibu kwa tuhuma za kuwapigia kura wagombea wa CCM ambao wanadaiwa kulidhalilisha kanisa hilo.
Aliyekuwa mgombea ubunge wa Jimbo la Sumbawanga kupitia CCM Aeshy Hillary pamoja na wagombea udiwani wa jimbo hili kwa nyakati tofauti wanadaiwa walisikika wakisema kuwa ukimchagua Rais Kikwete ni sawa na kumchagua Mungu’ Kikwete ni Mungu Baba na kwamba mbunge Aeshy ni Mungu Mwana huku madiwani wakifananishwa na mungu Roho Mtakatifu .

Hata hivyo habari za ndani ya kanisa hilo, zilieleza kuwa baadhi ya waandishi wanaoabudu katika kanisa hilo watachukuliwa hatua za kisheria kwa mujibu wa kanisa hilo wakituhumiwa kulifuatilia suala hilo wakati mapadri na waumini hawakutaka litangazwe.

Viongozi wa kanisa hilo, wanadaiwa kuendelea kupokea majina ya waumini kutoka kwa viongozi wa jumuiya ya watu wanaotakiwa kutengwa na kanisa hilo.

Baadhi ya wakazi wa hapa walianza kupata hofu dhidi ya waandishi wanaofuatilia sakata hilo na kusema kuwa wasipokuwa makini wanaweza kupata uendawazimu kutokana na maombi yanayofanywa na waumini wa kanisa hilo.

Katika kipindi cha kampeni za uchaguzi mkuu, baadhi ya waumini hao, waliotengwa wanadaiwa kuwafafanisha wagombea ubunge na Urais kupitia CCM na utatu mtakatifu

Hata hivyo waumini na wananchi wa Mji wa Sumbawanga wamemtuhumu aliyekuwa mgombea ubunge wa jimbo hilo kupitia CCM Hillary pamoja na wagombea udiwani wa jimbo hilo kwa kuzusha tafrani hiyo.

Kwa mujibu wa vyanzo vya habari inafafanua kuwa kauli hiyo ilitolewa vibaya na baadhi ya waumini wa dini hiyo huku wengine wakitilia mkazo kuwa ni kweli mbunge huyo alitamka hadharani akiwa katika mkutano wake wa kampeni uliofanyika Izia mjini Sumbawanga.

Chanzo kimoja cha habari kinaeleza aliyekuwa mgombea ubunge huyo, alifafananisha utatu huo mtakatifu na mafiga matatu kauli inayotumiwa na wanachama wa CCM kwamba ili kauli hiyo itimie ni lazima awepo diwani ,mbunge na rais.

Kutokana na hali hiyo, mbunge huyo, alinukuliwa akisema kwamba katika vitabu vitakatifu kuna utatu mtakatifu na katika siasa kuna mafiga matatu na kusema kuwa kauli hiyo ilikuwa ni kauli ya kuwavuta wananchi ili waweze kumpatia kura za ndio katika uchaguzi mkuu uliopita wa Octoba mwaka huu.

Vyanzo hivyo vya habari vinaeleza kuwa kauli hiyo ilionekana kuwaudhi viongozi na waumini wa makanisa ya kikatoliki katika jimbo hilo la Sumbawanga.

Katika kipindi cha wiki ya mwisho ya kampeni mgombea huyo alionekana akiomba radhi katika mikutano yake ya kampeni na kusema kuwa yeye hakuwa na lengo wala nia mbaya ya kufafanisha mafiga matatu na utatu mtakatifu.

Waziri Mkuu Mizengo Pinda aliyefika katika mkutano wa kampeni uliofanyika katika kiwanja cha Shule ya Sekondari Msakila, aliwaomba radhi wananchi kutokana na kauli hiyo

Mufti Simba adai Serikali imekubali kurejesha Mahakama ya Kadhi


Salim Said na Ibrahim Jyamola
SHEIKH mkuu wa Tanzania, Mufti Issa bin Shaaban Simba amedai kuwa serikali imekubali kuirejesha Mahakama ya Kadhi nchini na kwamba mchakato wake ulisimama kupisha uchaguzi mkuu.

Mufti Simba alisema hayo jana alipokuwa akitoa salamu za mwaka mpya wa Kiislaamu wa 1432AH na akaweka bayana kuwa kipaumbele kikubwa kwa Waislamu katika mwaka huo ni kuona Mahakama ya Kadhi inaanza kazi na serikali kuitambua siku ya maadhimisho ya mwaka mpya wa Kiislamu kwa kuifanya iwe ya mapumziko.

“Mchakato wa Mahakama ya Kadhi unaendelea na umefikia mahala pazuri kwa sababu serikali imeshakubali kuirejesha," alisema Mufti Simba.

Kauli hiyo ya Mufti Simba imetolewa baada ya makamu wa rais, Dk Mohamed Gharib Bilal kueleza Novemba 17 wakati akijibu salamu za Baraza Kuu la Waislamu kuwa Waislamu nchini wataona matunda mazuri ya kilio chao hivi karibuni.
“Kuhusu Mahakama ya Kadhi, insha-Allah Mungu tutawafikisha kuona matunda mazuri muda si mrefu,” alisema Dk Bilal.
Kilio cha Waislamu kudai Mahakama ya Kadhi kiliongezeka katika miaka miwili iliyopita wakati walipoanza kuishambulia serikali kwa kushindwa kutekeleza ahadi ya chama tawala ya kuwaanzishia chombo hiyo kwa madai ni sehemu ya ilani yake ya uchaguzi wa mwaka 2005.

Baada ya mvutano wa muda mrefu na viongozi wa dini ya Kiislamu, serikali ilitoa taarifa kuwa Mahakama ya Kadhi itaundwa nje ya mfumo wa sheria za nchi na kuunda kamati ya kushughulikia utekelezaji wa maazimio hayo.
Akizungumza na wanahabari ofisini kwake jijini Dar es Salaam jana, Mufti Simba aliwatoa wasiwasi Waislaamu wote nchini kuhusu Mahakama ya Kadhi akieleza kuwa mchakato wake ulisimama kupisha uchaguzi.
“Mchakato wa Mahakama ya Kadhi ulisimama kwa sababu baadhi ya watu ambao tulikuwa nao katika mazungumzo walikuwa wanagombea,” alisema Mufti Simba.

“Kilichobaki ni kuweka mfumo mzuri ambao utaendesha mahakama hiyo. Kwa hiyo siku chache zijazo majopo yote mawili yatarudi mezani kumalizia mchakato na hatimaye mahakama ianze kufanya kazi.”
Hata hivyo, mufti Simba alisema kuwa Waislaamu hudai mambo yao kistaarabu na kwamba hakuna haja ya kuweka shinikizo kwa maandamano, migomo na mabango.

Kuhusu mapumziko siku ya maadhimisho ya mwaka mpya wa Kiislaamu, Mufti Simba alisema tayari wameshaiandikia serikali kuomba jambo hilo kama ilivyo kwa sherehe za maadhimisho ya miaka mingine.
Aliwataka Waislaamu kuijali siku hiyo na kufanya maadhimisho mbalimbali katika ngazi ya taifa, kanda, mkoa, wilaya, kata na hata msikiti, ikiiwa ni pamoja na kupamba nyumba zao na sehemu zao za kazi kuashiria sherehe hizo.

“Ili serikali iweze kutusikia na kutufikiria, lazima sisi wenyewe tuonekane tunaihitaji hiyo siku. Ombi tayari tumelifikisha serikalini na tunaamini serikali italishughulikia,” alisema Mufti Simba.
Mufti alisema mapumziko katika sikukuu ya mwaka mpya wa Kiislaam yangekuwapo, lakini kulikuwa na makosa mwanzoni.
“Miaka ya nyuma; wazee wetu kabla sisi hatujaja, waliulizwa wataje sikukuu za Waislaam, wakasema ni Idd Kubwa na Idd ndogo pamoja na siku ya Maulidi ya kuzaliwa kwa Mtume Muhammad (S.A.W). Wakaisahau siku ya mwaka mpya wa kiislaamu,” alibainisha Mufti Simba.

Mufti aliwata Waislaamu kuingia katika mwaka mpya wa 1432 ambao ulianza jana kwa kuwajibika katika kujitafutia maendeleo na sio kutegemea wafadhili katika kila jambo.
Aliwataka Waislaam kuhama kutoka katika maovu na kuhamia katika kufanya mema na kushiriki katika kazi za ujenzi wa taifa.

Aliwaombea dua viongozi wa nchi, akiwemo Rais Jakaya Kikwete, Makamu wake na baraza lote la mawaziri na kuwataka kuihamisha Tanzania kutoka katika hali iliyopo sasa ya kiuchumi na kuipeleka kwenye maendeleo mazuri

Padri anayedaiwa kulawiti kortini


Daniel Mjema, Moshi
HATIMAYE Padri Stanslaus Msafiri Salla (70) wa Parokia ya Kilema ya Kanisa Katoliki Jimbo la Moshi mkoani Kilimanjaro, amefikishwa mahakamani akikabiliwa na shtaka la kumlawiti kijana mwenye umri wa miaka 16.

Padre Salla ambaye alipelekwa mahakamani jana kwa njia ambayo polisi walisema ni ya “kistaarabu”, aliachiwa kwa dhamana baada ya kutimiza masharti ya kuwa na wadhamini wawili waliomdhamini kwa Sh10 milioni kila mmoja.
Ingawaje hati ya mashtaka iliwasilishwa kortini na polisi saa 3:00 asubuhi na kufunguliwa na kupewa namba 743/2010, lakini padre huyo alifika mahakamani hapo saa 5:30 kwa mazingira yaliyoibua maswali mengi kuliko majibu.

Mshtakiwa huyo aliingia mwenyewe jengo la mahakama na polisi mwenye cheo cha Koplo namba 5397, alimwelekeza asiingie mahabusu bali aende moja kwa moja kukaa kwenye benchi la hakimu aliyepangiwa kesi hiyo.
Akimsomea shtaka linalomkabili, Wakili wa Serikali, Abdallah Chavulla, alidai mahakamani kuwa, Oktoba 30, mwaka huu majira ya usiku eneo la Kilema Leso, Padre huyo alimuingia kinyume cha maumbile kijana mwenye umri wa miaka 16.

Alidai kuwa, kitendo kilichofanywa na Padre huyo kilikuwa ni kosa chini ya kifungu namba 154 (1) (a) cha sura namba 16 cha kanuni ya adhabu kama kilivyofanyiwa marekebisho na Bunge mwaka 2002.

Chini ya kanuni hiyo, anayepatikana na hatia atatakiwa kutumikia kifungo cha miaka 30 jela isipokuwa kama mshtakiwa atakuwa amemfanyia kitendo hicho mtoto chini ya miaka 10 basi, adhabu yake ni kifungo cha maisha.
Hakimu Mkazi Mfawadhi Mkoa wa Kilimanjaro, Simon Kobelo, alisema dhamana ya mshtakiwa huyo ilikuwa wazi na ndugu waliojitokeza mahakamani hapo wakiwamo baadhi ya mapadre, walifanikiwa kutimiza masharti hayo.

Wakati huohuo, Kamanda wa Polisi Mkoa Kilimanjaro, Lucas Ng’hoboko, amekanusha kumlinda kwa namna yoyote mtuhumiwa huyo akisema hapaswi kunyooshewa kidole kwani, yeye ni mtawala sio mpelelezi wa makosa ya jinai.
“Naambiwa natumia ukatoliki wangu kumlinda Padre, kwanza mimi ni mtawala tu sio mpelelezi,” alisema Kamanda Ng’hoboko na kuongeza kuwa, uandaaji mashtaka sasa unafanywa na ofisi ya Mwanasheria Mkuu wa Serikali.

Ng’hoboko alifafanua kuwa, taarifa kwamba fomu ya polisi (PF3) iliyopelekwa kwa mwanasheria wa serikali sio halisi, amezisoma kwenye vyombo vya habari na kuwataka wenye nakala halisi kuiwasilisha kwake ifanyiwe kazi

Askofu Malasusa apata ushindi wa kishindo KKKT- DMP


Mwandishi Wetu
MKUTANO mkuu wa 30 wa Dayosisi ya Mashariki na Pwani (DMP) ya Kanisa la Kiinjili la Kilutheri Tanzania (KKKT) umemchagua Askofu Alex Malasusa kuingoza tena dayosisi hiyo hadi atakapostaafu utumishi wa kanisa hilo. Askofu Malasusa, ambaye pia ni mkuu wa KKKT nchini, alichaguliwa kwa kura ya imani iliyopigwa juzi jioni, mwanzoni mwa mkutano huo ambao ulitanguliwa na madai ya kuwepo njana za kumuhujumu kiongozi huyo.

Madai ya hujuma yalibainishwa Novemba 23 mwaka huu wakati Msaidizi wa Askofu, Mchungaji George Fupe alipowaeleza waandishi kuwa kuna kikundi cha watu wanaojiita waumini wa kanisa hilo ambao alidai kuwa walikuwa wakifanya njama za kuhujumu mkutano huo kwa kutumia magazeti.

Kwa mujibu wa Mchungaji Fupe, Halmashauri Kuu ya KKKT-DMP iliyokutana Novemba 18, 2010 iligundua kwamba hoja zinazoandikwa katika magazeti ya Kiswahili moja la kila siku (siyo Mwananchi) na jingine la kila wiki yanayomilikiwa na kampuni moja, “zinalenga kuvuruga na kuchafua maandalizi ya mkutano mkuu wa 30 wa Dayosisi”. Katika mkutano unaoendelea mjini Bagamoyo ambao una ajenda 14, uchaguzi ulikuwa ajenda ya mwisho lakini utarabu huo ulibadilika baada ya hoja iliyotolewa na mmoja wa wajumbe ya kutaka zipigwe kura za imani (uchaguzi) kabla ya kuendelea na ajenda nyingine.

Habari kutoka Chuo cha Maendeleo ya Uongozi wa Elimu (ADEM) mjini Bagamoyo ambako mkutano huo unafanyika, zinasema kuwa baada ya ajenda ya kwanza ya kuhakiki akidi ya wajumbe wa mkutano, mmoja wa wajumbe alitoa hoja kutaka mabadiliko ya mtiririko wa ajenda.

“Mjumbe aliyetoa hoja hiyo alitaka mkutano mkuu uthibitishe, kukubaliana au kutokubaliana na tamko la Halmashauri ya Dayosisi lililotolewa kwenye sharika na kwenye vyombo vya habari kuhusu kuwepo kwa njama za kuhujumiwa kwa mkutano,” kilieleza chanzo chetu kutoka ndani ya mkutano huo. “Hoja ya kutaka kura zipigwe mapema ilitolewa kwa maelezo kwamba ni kumwezesha mwenyekiti wa mkutano (ambaye ni Askofu Malasusa) kuendesha kikao akiwa na amani na wajumbe wote na kama kulikuwa na wanaompinga, pia wawe na amani baada ya uchaguzi kufanyika.” Kwa mujibu wa habari hizo, hoja hiyo ilizua mjadala miongoni mwa wajumbe kabla ya kuafikiana kufanya mabadiliko ya ajenda hivyo kura za imani zilipigwa na Askofu Malasusa kupata ushindi mkubwa. Katika uchaguzi huo, Askofu Malasusa alipata kura za imani 256 sawa na asilimia 96.6 ya wajumbe 265 waliokuwepo. Wajumbe nane hawakupiga kura na mjumbe mmoja alipiga kura ya kutokuwa upande wowote.

Kura hiyo ya imani ni kwa mujibu wa kanuni za Dayosisi ya Mashariki na Pwani zinazobainisha kuwa askofu wa dayosisi ataongoza kwa kipindi cha miaka sita, na baada ya kipindi hicho atapigiwa kura ya imani na mkutano mkuu wa dayosisi. Akizungumza mara baada ya kupigiwa kura ya kuwa na imani naye, Dk Malasusa aliwashukuru wajumbe kwa kuwa na imani naye na kuwataka waendelee kufanya kazi ya Mungu bila kuwaangalia wanadamu. Alisema katika mazingira ya sasa ambayo baadhi ya watu wenye fedha wanataka kuliamulia kanisa jinsi ya kuenenda, Wakristo wanatakiwa kuwa imara ili wasiyumbishwe na shetani kwa kuruhusu magazeti kuamua ajenda za kanisa.

Naye askofu wa zamani wa DMP, Elinaza Sendoro alimpongeza Askofu Malasusa kwa kazi nzuri anayofanya na kueleza kuwa chini ya uongozi wake, kanisa linaendelea kusonga mbele kwa kuwa sharika na mitaa ya kanisa hilo imezidi kuongezeka.
Dayosisi ya Mashariki na Pwani ya KKKT inayochukua eneo la Dar es Salaam, Pwani na Zanzibar imekuwa chini ya uongozi wa Askofu Alex Malasuasa kwa miaka sita na kiongozi huyo pia ndiye mkuu wa KKKT. Askofu Malasusa alichaguliwa rasmi kuongoza DMP mwaka 2004 na Julai 18, 2007 alichaguliwa kuwa mkuu wa kanisa baada ya kuwashinda kwa kura nyingi wagombea wenzake ambao ni maaskofu, Dk Stephen Munga wa Dayosisi ya Kaskazini Mashariki na Dk Oldenberg Mdegela wa Dayosisi ya Iringa.

Pia Dk Malasusa ni Makamu wa pili wa mwenyekiti wa Jumuiya ya Kikristo Tanzania ( CCT) na pia ni makamu wa rais wa Fungamano la Makanisa ya Kilutheri la Dunia (LWF), akishughulikia bara la Afrika.
Mkutano mkuu wa Dayosisi hiyo hufanyika kila baada ya miaka miwili na hujumuisha wajumbe wawili kutoka katika kila usharika na wachungaji wote, wakuu wa vitengo na viongozi wa dayosisi

The Islamic and Christian views of Jesus: a comparison


The person of Jesus or Isa in Arabic (peace be upon him) is of great significance in both Islam and Christianity. However, there are differences in terms of beliefs about the nature and life occurrences of this noble Messenger.

Source of information about Jesus in Islam

Most of the Islamic information about Jesus is actually found in the Quran.

The Quran was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), and memorized and written down in his lifetime. Today, anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim believes in the complete authenticity of the Quran as the original revealed guidance from God.

Source of information about Jesus in Christianity

Christians take their information about Jesus from the Bible, which includes the Old and New Testaments.

These contain four biblical narratives covering the life and death of Jesus. They have been written, according to tradition, respectively by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They are placed at the beginning of the New Testament and comprise close to half of it.

Encyclopedia Britannica notes that none of the sources of his life and work can be traced to Jesus himself; he did not leave a single known written word. Also, there are no contemporary accounts written of his life and death. What can be established about the historical Jesus depends almost without exception on Christian traditions, especially on the material used in the composition of the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which reflect the outlook of the later church and its faith in Jesus.

Below are the views of Islam and Christianity based on primary source texts and core beliefs.


ISLAM


1. Do Muslims believe he was a Messenger of One God? YES

Belief in all of the Prophets and Messengers of God is a fundamental article of faith in Islam. Thus, believing in Prophets Adam, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon them) is a requirement for anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim. A person claiming to be a Muslim who, for instance, denies the Messengership of Jesus, is not considered a Muslim.

The Quran says in reference to the status of Jesus as a Messenger:

"The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other mortals do). See how We make Our signs clear to them; and see where they are turning away!" (Quran 5:75).


2. Do Muslims believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YES

Like Christians, Muslims believe Mary, Maria in Spanish, or Maryam as she is called in Arabic, was a chaste, virgin woman, who miraculously gave birth to Jesus.

"Relate in the Book the story of Mary, when she withdrew from her family, to a place in the East. She screened herself from them; then We sent to her Our spirit (angel Gabriel) and he appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: I seek refuge from you in God Most Gracious (come not near) if you do fear God. He said: Nay, I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to announce to you the gift of a pure son. She said: How shall I have a son, when no man has ever touched me, and I am not unchaste? He said: So it will be, your Lord says: ‘That is easy for Me; and We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a Mercy from Us': It was a matter so decreed" (Quran 19:16-21).


3. Do Muslims believe Jesus had a miraculous birth? YES

The Quran says:

"She (Mary) said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.' He (God) said: ‘So (it will be) for God creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: ‘Be!'- and it is" (3:47).

It should also be noted about his birth that:

"Verily, the likeness of Jesus in God's Sight is the likeness of Adam. He (God) created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!'-and he was" (Quran 3:59).


4. Do Muslims believe Jesus spoke in the cradle? YES

"Then she (Mary) pointed to him. They said: ‘How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?' He (Jesus) said: ‘Verily! I am a slave of God, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet; " (19:29-30).

5. Do Muslims believe he performed miracles? YES

Muslims, like Christians believe Jesus performed miracles. But these were performed by the will and permission of God, Who has power and control over all things.

"Then will God say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! recount My favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel) so that you did speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold: you make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by My leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers by My leave. And behold! you bring forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the children of Israel from (violence to you) when you did show them the Clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic' (5:110).


6. Do Muslims believe in the Trinity? NO

Muslims believe in the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is a Supreme Being free of human limitations, needs and wants. He has no partners in His Divinity. He is the Creator of everything and is completely separate from His creation.

God says in the Quran regarding the Trinity:

"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of God, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in God and in His Messengers, and do not say: ‘God is a Trinity.' Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. God is indeed just One God. Far be it from His glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. God is sufficient for a guardian" (Quran 4:171).


7. Do Muslims believe that Jesus was the son of God? NO

"Say: "God is Unique! God, the Source [of everything]. He has not fathered anyone nor was He fathered, and there is nothing comparable to Him!" (Quran 112:1-4).

The Quran also states:

"Such was Jesus, the son of Mary; it is a statement of truth, about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of God, that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! When He determines a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be' and it is" (Quran 19:34-35).


8. Do Muslims believe Jesus was killed on the cross then resurrected? NO

"“They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did.” (Quran 4:156) “God lifted him up to His presence. God is Almighty, All-Wise” (Quran 4:157) .




CHRISTIANITY


1. Do Christians believe Jesus was a human being and Messenger of God? YES & NO

With the exception of Unitarian Christians, who like all the early followers of Jesus, still do not believe in the Trinity, most Christians now believe in the Divinity of Jesus, which is connected to the belief in Trinity. They say he is the second member of the Triune God, the Son of the first part of the Triune God, and at the same time "fully" God in every respect.


2. Do Christians believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YES

A chaste and pious human woman who gave birth to Jesus Christ, the second member of the Trinity, the Son of God, and at the same time "fully" God Almighty in every respect.

Christians believe however, that while she was a virgin, she was married to a man named Joseph (Bible: Matthew:1:18). According to Matthew 1:25, Joseph "kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus".


3. Do Christians believe he had a miraculous birth? YES

"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows. When His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit" (Bible: Matthew 1:18)


4. Do Christians believe he performed miracles? YES

"And now, Lord, look upon their threats, and grant to thy servants to speak thy word with all boldness, while thou stretches out thy hand to heal, and sign and wonders are performed through the name of thy holy servant Jesus (Bible: Acts 4:30).

Christians believe that Jesus performed these miracles because he was the Son of God as well as the incarnation of God.


5. Do Christians believe in the Trinity? YES

With the exception of the Unitarian Christians, who do not believe in the Divinity of Christ, the Trinity, according to the Catholic encyclopedia, is the term used for the central doctrine of the Christian religion. The belief is that in the unity of the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. These three Persons or beings are distinct from each another, while being similar in character: uncreated and omnipotent.

The First Vatican Council has explained the meaning to be attributed to the term mystery in theology. It lays down that a mystery is a truth which we are not merely incapable of discovering apart from Divine Revelation, but which, even when revealed, remains "hidden by the veil of faith and enveloped, so to speak, by a kind of darkness" (Const., "De fide. cath.", iv). The First Vatican Council further defined that the Christian Faith contains mysteries strictly so called (can. 4). All theologians admit that the doctrine of the Trinity is of the number of these. The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that of all revealed truths, this is the most impenetrable to reason.



6. Do Christians believe that Jesus was the son of God? YES

"For God so loved the world that He gave His only Son that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through Him (Bible: John 3:16).

However, it is interesting to note that the term "son of God" is used in other parts of the Bible to refer to Adam (Bible: Luke 3:38), Israel (Bible: Exodus 4:22) and David (Bible: Psalms 2:7) as well. The creatures of God are usually referred to in the Bible as children of God.


The role of Paul of Tarsus in shaping this belief and the belief in Trinity

The notion of Jesus as son of God is something that was established under the influence of Paul of Tarsus (originally named Saul), who had been an enemy of Jesus, but later changed course and joined the disciples after the departure of Jesus.

Later, however, he initiated a number of changes into early Christian teachings, in contradiction, for instance, to disciples like Barnabas, who believed in the Oneness of God and who had actually lived and met with Jesus.

Paul is considered by a number of Christian scholars to be the father of Christianity due to his additions of the following ideas:

that Jesus is the son of God,

the concept of Atonement,

the renunciation of the Law of the Torah.

Paul did these things in hopes of winning over the Gentiles (non-Jewish people). His letters are another of the primary sources of information on Jesus according to the Christian tradition.

The original followers of Prophet Jesus opposed these blatant misrepresentations of the message of Jesus. They struggled to reject the notion of the Divinity of Jesus for close to 200 years.

One person who was an original follower of Jesus was Barnabas. He was a Jew born in Cyrus and a successful preacher of the teachings of Jesus. Because of his closeness to Jesus, he was an important member of the small group of disciples in Jerusalem who had had gathered together following the disappearance of Jesus.

The question of Jesus's nature, origin and relationship with God was not raised amongst Barnabas and the small group of disciples. Jesus was considered a man miraculously endowed by God. Nothing in the words of Jesus or the events in his life led them to modify this view.

The Gospel of Barnabas was accepted as a Canonical Gospel in the Churches of Alexandria till 325 CE Iranaeus (130-200) wrote in support of pure monotheism and opposed Paul for injecting into Christianity doctrines of the pagan Roman religion and Platonic philosophy. He quoted extensively from the Gospel of Barnabas in support of his views. This indicates that the Gospel of Barnabas was in circulation in the first and second centuries of Christianity.

In 325 (CE), a council of Christian leaders met at Nicaea and made Paul's beliefs officially part of Christian doctrine. It also ordered that all original Gospels in Hebrew script which contradicted Paul's beliefs should be destroyed. An edict was issued that anyone in possession of these Gospels would be put to death.

The Gospel of Barnabas has miraculously survived though.


7. Do Christians believe he was killed on the cross? YES

This is a core Christian belief and it relates to the concept of atonement. According to this belief, Jesus died to save mankind from sin. However, this is not stated explicitly in the four gospels which form the primary source texts of Christianity. It is found, however, in Romans 6:8,9.

Christians believe Jesus was spat on, cut, humiliated, kicked, striped and finally hung up on the cross to endure a slow and painful death.

According, to Christian belief, the original sin of Adam and Eve of eating from the forbidden tree was so great that God could not forgive it by simply willing it, rather it was necessary to erase it with the blood of a sinless, innocent Jesus.


Resurrection

The four Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul are the main sources of Christianity which discuss the Resurrection of Jesus after his crucifixion. According to St. Matthew, Jesus appeared to the holy women, and again on a mountain in Galilee. Mark's Gospel tells a different story: Jesus was seen by Mary Magdalene, by the two disciples at Emmaus, and the Eleven before his Ascension into heaven.

Luke's Gospel says Jesus walked with the disciples to Emmaus, appeared to Peter and to the assembled disciples in Jerusalem. In John's Gospel, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene, to the ten Apostles on Easter Sunday, to the Eleven a week later, and to seven disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.

Another account of the resurrection by St. Paul is found in Bible: Corinthians 15: 3-8.

According to Christian belief, Resurrection is a manifestation of God's justice, Who exalted Christ to a life of glory, as Christ had humbled himself unto death (Phil., 2: 8-9). This event also completes the mystery of Christian salvation and redemption. The death of Jesus frees believers from sin, and with his resurrection, he restores to them the most important privileges lost by sin (Bible: Romans 4:25).

More importantly, the belief in the resurrection of Jesus indicates Christian acknowledgment of Christ as the immortal God, the cause of believers' own resurrection (Bible: I Corinthians 4: 21; Phil., 3:20-21), as well as the model and the support of a new life of grace (Bible: Romans 4: 4-6; 9-11).

Mwanaume Abakwa na Wanawake 10


Kijana mwenye umri wa miaka 17 wa nchini Papua New Guinea amelazwa hospitali akipatiwa matibabu baada ya kubakwa genge la wahuni wanawake wapatao 10.
Kwa mujibu wa kamanda wa polisi wa Southern Highland, nchini Papua New Guinea, Teddy Tei, kijana huyo mwenye umri wa miaka 17 alikumbana na zahama hilo siku ya ijumaa wakati alipovamiwa na kundi la wahuni wanawake wapatao 10.

Wanawake hao wakiwa na visu walimshambulia kijana huyo kabla ya kupokezana kumbaka kwa zamu.

"Hii ni kesi tunayoifualia kwa ukaribu zaidi, tunawatafuta wanawake waliofanya unyama huu", alisema kamanda huyo wa polisi.

Taarifa ya polisi ilisema kwamba wanawake 10 wakiwa na visu walimshambulia kijana huyo na wanawake wanne kati yao walimuingilia kinguvu kijana huyo.

Kamanda Tei aliongeza kuwa kijana huyo aliwahishwa hospitali kwa matibabu zaidi.

Kijana huyo ambaye jina lake limewekwa kapuni, anafanyiwa uchunguzi ili kujua kama ameambukizwa magonjwa ya zinaa au la.

"Ugonjwa wa ukimwi ni tatizo kubwa hapa Papua New Guinea, ninahofia huenda baadhi ya wanawake waliombaka huenda wakawa ni waathirika", alisema Kamanda Tei na kuongeza.

"Nimekuwa nikiwaonya wanawake wawe waangalifu sasa inanibidi nianze kuwaonya na wanaume nao wawe waangalifu mitaani".

Did Jesus rise from the dead?



We all wonder what will happen to us after we die. When a loved one dies, we long to see him or her again after our turn comes. Will we have a glorious reunion with those we love or is death the end of all consciousness?

Jesus taught that life does not end after our bodies die. He made this startling claim: “I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die like everyone else, will live again.” According to the eyewitnesses closest to him, Jesus then demonstrated his power over death by rising from the dead after being crucified and buried for three days. It is this belief that has given hope to Christians for nearly 2000 years.

But some people have no hope of life after death. The atheistic philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote, “I believe that when I die I shall rot, and nothing of my own ego will survive.”1 Russell obviously didn’t believe Jesus’ words.

Jesus’ followers wrote that he appeared alive to them after his crucifixion and burial. They claim not only to have seen him but also to have eaten with him, touched him, and spent 40 days with him.

So could this have been simply a story that grew over time, or is it based upon solid evidence? The answer to this question is foundational to Christianity. For if Jesus did rise from the dead, it would validate everything he said about himself, about the meaning of life, and about our destiny after death.

If Jesus did rise from the dead then he alone would have the answers to what life is about and what is facing us after we die. On the other hand, if the resurrection account of Jesus is not true, then Christianity would be founded upon a lie. Theologian R. C. Sproul puts it this way:

“The claim of resurrection is vital to Christianity. If Christ has been raised from the dead by God, then He has the credentials and certification that no other religious leader possesses. Buddha is dead. Mohammad is dead. Moses is dead. Confucius is dead. But, according to…Christianity, Christ is alive.”2

Many skeptics have attempted to disprove the resurrection. Josh McDowell was one such skeptic who spent more than seven hundred hours researching the evidence for the resurrection. McDowell stated this regarding the importance of the resurrection:

“I have come to the conclusion that the resurrection of Jesus Christ is one of the most wicked, vicious, heartless hoaxes ever foisted upon the minds of men, OR it is the most fantastic fact of history.”3

So, is Jesus' resurrection a fantastic fact or a vicious myth? To find out, we need to look at the evidence of history and draw our own conclusions. Let’s see what skeptics who investigated the resurrection discovered for themselves

Monday, November 22, 2010

Viongozi wa dini wamtuliza Dk Slaa


Salim Said
JOPO la viongozi wa dini limefanya ziara ya ghafla kwa aliyekuwa mgombea wa urais kwa tiketi ya Chadema, Dk Wiilibrod Slaa na kumtaka akubali matokeo au atumie njia za kisheria kudai haki yake, Mwananchi imebaini.

Dk Slaa hakutokea kwenye hafla ya kutangaza mshindi wa kiti cha urais wala sherehe za kuapishwa kwa Jakaya Kikwete kuwa rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano na aliahidi kuwa angetoa tamko zito jana.

Wakati Tume ya Uchaguzi (Nec) ikiendelea kutangaza matokeo, Dk Slaa aliitisha mkutano na waandishi wa habari na kueleza kuwa hangekubaliana na matokeo kutokana na kubaini kuwa Nec ilikuwa inatangaza matokeo tofauti na yaliyo kwenye nyaraka walizosaini na hivyo kuitaka isitishe zoezi hilo ili kura zianza kuhesabiwa upya.

Dk Slaa pia aliituhumu Idara ya Usalama wa Taifa kuwa ilihusika kuchakachua kura kwa lengo la kumbeba mgombea mmoja wa urais, tuhuma ambazo ziliifanya taasisi hiyo, inayofanya kazi kwa siri, ijitokeze hadharani kujibu na kumuelezea katibu huyo mkuu wa Chadema kuwa "ni mzushi".

Tamko hilo la Dk Slaa lilionekana kuwashutua viongozi wa dini na kuhisi dalili za kutokea mvutano ambao ungeweza kusababisha kuvunjika kwa amani. Mwananchi imebaini kuwa ziara ya kimya kimya ya viongozi hao wa dini ilifanywa wiki iliyopita kabla ya Nec kumtangaza Kikwete kuwa ni mshindi.

Kwa mujibu wa habari zilizolifikia gazeti hili zinaeleza kwamba viongozi hao walimtaka Dk Slaa asisababisha mvutano ili kudumisha amani ya nchi. Habari za ziara hiyo ya dharura ya jopo hilo la viongozi wa dini za Kikristo na Kiislamu zilithibitishwa na meneja wa kampeni wa Chadema, Profesa Mwesiga Baregu. Profesa Baregu aliiambia Mwananchi kuwa ujumbe mkubwa uliofikishwa na jopo hilo ulikuwa ni kuwaomba viongozi wa Chadema kutumia njia sahihi za kudai haki yao ambazo hazitazusha vurugu, fujo wala uvunjifu wowote wa amani.

“Ujumbe wao kwetu ulikuwa ni kutuomba kwamba kusiwe na vurugu, fujo wala uvunjifu wowote wa amani wakati wa kutangazwa matokeo na hata baada ya kutangazwa,” alisema Profesa Baregu. “Badala yake wakatuomba kama hatujaridhika na matokeo basi tutumie taratibu za kisheria zilizowekwa kudai haki. Lakini sisi tuliwaeleza kuwa hatuna nia ya kufanya vurugu wala kuandamana, lakini uchaguzi umevurugwa na hatuwezi kukubali.”

Alisema jopo la viongozi hao wanne wa dini wakiongozwa na askofu mkuu wa Kanisa la Anglikana Tanzania, Dk Valentino Mokiwa lilifanya ziara hiyo baada ya Chadema kuitaka Nec kusitisha utangazaji wa matokeo kwa kuwa Usalama wa Taifa wamechakachua matokeo.

“Sijui walikuwa na wasiwasi gani au nani aliwashauri kuja tena kuonana na viongozi wa Chadema, lakini nadhani ni baada ya kuona tumesema hatungekubali matokeo kwa kuwa uchaguzi umechafuliwa,” alisema Profesa Baregu. Alisema pamoja na wasiwasi huo wa viongozi wa dini, Chadema haikuwa na mpango wowote wa kuunganisha nguvu ya umma na kuingia barabarani, kama ilivyofanyika Kenya, kudai haki. “Lakini hatujaridhika na matokeo kwa sababu uchaguzi ulikuwa mchafu.

Rais amechaguliwa na robo tu ya wapigakura. Nec imeongeza majina kwa sababu kabla ya uchaguzi ilisema wapigakura wote ni 19.9 milioni, lakini akitangaza mshindi Jaji Lewis Makame anasema ni 20.1, hatujui wametoka wapi,” alisema Profesa Baregu. Kwa mujibu wa Baregu wengine waliokuwamo katika msafara huo wa viongozi wa dini walikuwa ni kutoka Kanisa Katoliki na Baraza Kuu la Waislaam Tanzania (Bakwata).

Dk Slaa, ambaye alishika nafasi ya pili kwenye kinyang'anyiro cha urais kwa kupata asilimia 26 ya kura, pia alitembelewa na jopo la viongozi wa dini kabla ya kumalizika kwa kampeni wakimtaka awe tayari kupokea matokeo yoyote yale. Jopo hilo lilidai wakati huo kuwa lingetembelea wagombea wengine wa urais, lakini halikufanya tena ziara kwa wagombea wengine hadi uchaguzi ulipofanyika

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Mama Amuua Mwanae Baada ya Kumfua Kwenye Mashine ya Kufulia Nguo


Mtoto mchanga wa siku 10 amepoteza maisha yake baada ya mama yake kujisahau na kumchanganya pamoja na nguo na kumfua kwenye mashine ya kufulia nguo kwa dakika 40.
Polisi wa Bartlesville, Oklahoma nchini Marekani wanamshikilia mama aliyemuua mwanae kwa bahati mbaya kwa kumchanganya na nguo chafu alizozifua kwenye mashine ya kufulia nguo.

Lindsey Fiddler, amefunguliwa mashtaka ya mauaji huku akitupwa rumande akinyimwa dhamana kwa kosa la mauaji ya mwanae yaliyotokea alhamisi iliyopita.

Shangazi wa mtoto aliyefariki aliita ambulansi na polisi punde baada ya kumgundua mtoto huyo mchanga akiwa ndani ya mashine ya kufulia nguo.

Shangazi huyo aliwaambia polisi kuwa alifika nyumbani kwa Lindsey kuwaona watoto wake, wakati huo Lindsey alikuwa amelala fofofo.

Aliwaambia polisi kuwa alipata tabu kumuasha Lindsey ambaye wakati huo alikuwa kwenye usingizi mzito kutokana kulewa pombe na madawa ya kulevya.

Madaktari walijaribu kuyaokoa maisha ya mtoto huyo wakati wakimwahisha hospitali kwa ambulansi lakini hawakufanikiwa.

Mtoto huyo mchanga alifariki dunia kutokana na kuzungushwa ndani ya mashine ya kufulia nguo kwa takribani dakika 40.

Polisi wa Bartlesville walisema kwamba Lindsey alishawahi kukamatwa na kuhukumiwa kutokana na matumizi ya madawa ya kulevya

Baada ya Kuambukizwa Ukimwi, Polisi wa Kenya Awaua Watu 10


Afisa mmoja wa polisi nchini Kenya amewaua watu 10 kwa kuwapiga risasi wakati akimtafuta mwanamke aliyemuambukiza ukimwi.
Afisa wa polisi wa nchini Kenya aliyedai anamwinda mwanamke aliyemuambukiza ukimwi, alivamia baa tatu katika kitongoji cha Siakago kilichopo maili 90 kaskazini mwa Nairobi na kuwaua watu 10 wakiwemo maafisa wenzake wawili wa polisi.

Afisa huyo ambaye ana umri wa miaka 30 na ushee, alifanya mauaji hayo jioni ya siku ya jumamosi wakati akimtafuta mpenzi wake ambaye alidai amemuambukiza HIV, alisema kamishna wa polisi wa wilaya, John Chelimo.

"Inasemakana kuwa afisa huyo alikuwa akimtuhumu msichana mmoja kuwa amemuambukiza HIV, alitoka jioni kwenda kumtafuta kwenye baa lakini hakumpata", alisema mkuu wa polisi wa eneo hilo.

Afisa huyo wa polisi alifanya mashambulizi yake kwenye baa tatu tofauti.

"Wakati milio ya risasi iliposikika, polisi wawili walimfuata afisa huyo wa polisi na kumuita kwa jina lake, hakuitikia na badala yake aliwapiga risasi na kuwaua hapo hapo", alisema Chelimo.

Afisa huyo wa polisi aliwaua jumla ya watu 10 ambapo wanawake walikuwa wawili na wanaume walikuwa wanane.

Baada ya mauaji hayo, mamia ya watu wenye hasira waliandamana mbele ya kituo cha polisi cha Siakago kwakuwa mauaji hayo yalifanyika mbele ya kituo cha polisi.

"Mauaji yalifanyika karibu sana na kituo cha polisi", alisema mwanaume mmoja ambaye binti yake ni mmoja wa watu waliouliwa na afisa huyo wa polisi.

"Hapa Siakago hakuna usalama kabisa ", alisema mwanaume huyo na kuongeza "Mtu anaweza akawapiga risasi watu 20 hadi 30 bila ya polisi kuchukua hatua yoyote".

Taarifa ya polisi ilisema kuwa afisa huyo ametupwa rumande akisubiri kufikishwa mahakamani.

Mashoga Walana Denda Mbele ya Papa


Mamia ya mashoga wa nchini Hispania walinyonyana ndimi kwa dakika tano mbele ya Papa Benedict XVI katika kupinga kauli zake za kupinga ndoa za wanaume kwa wanaume.
Ziara ya Papa Benedict XVI nchini Hispania imekumbana na vioja vya mashoga wa nchini humo ambao waliamua kunyonyana ndimi mbele yake ili kupinga kauli zake za kupinga utoaji mimba na ndoa za watu wa jinsia moja.

Wakati gari la Papa ambaye hivi sasa ana umri wa miaka 83 lilipokuwa likipita barabarani mbele ya maelfu ya waumini wa kanisa katoliki mjini Barcelona, mamia ya mashoga na wasagaji walinyonyana ndimi hadharani kwa takribani dakika tano ili kuonyesha upinzani wao kwa kanisa katoliki.

Hata hivyo pamoja na mashoga kuonyesha upinzani wao, Papa katika hotuba yake aliendelea kukemea ndoa za jinsia moja na utoaji mimba.

Papa alisema kuwa sheria za Hispania zimewapa nafasi wanawake kutoa mimba kirahisi na pia wanaume kuwaoa wanaume wenzao.

Papa aliendelea kusema kuwa kanisa katoliki litaendelea kukemea hali zozote zinazopingana na maisha asilia ya binadamu katika kujenga familia bora

King Tut Aka Pharaoh History Guide And Exhibit In New York Manhattan 2010 Hot Details And Review


Tutankhamun (Tutenkh-amen), Egyptian (1341 BC – 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c.1333 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun." In hieroglyphs the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters. He was likely the 18th dynasty king 'Rathotis' who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years — a figure which conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome

The traveling Tut exhibition, which was recently in Philadelphia, contains
more than 50 artifacts from Tut’s tomb along with more than 80 other Egyptian artifacts, organizers said today. (In Philadelphia, it attracted nearly 1.3 million visitors to the Franklin Institute in 2007.)

More than 5,000 beautifully preserved artifacts were found in Tutankhamun's tomb, and the 50 selected for this exhibition -- along with more than 80 from other royal tombs -- are among the most breathtaking objects of ancient Egypt said show curator David Silverman, Eckley B. Coxe Jr. professor of Egyptology at the University of Pennsylvania -- and a Bayonne native and a Rutgers grad.

That the exhibit is back in New York after a 31-year-absence is a source of barely concealed excitement among its organizers, including a couple of Jersey guys.

"There are some objects in this show that have never been outside Egypt and many objects that were not in New York 30 years ago," said Guy Gsell, director of Discovery Times Square Exposition and a Glen Ridge resident.


The exhibit, which runs through Jan. 2, 2011, is the final stop of an eight-city, nearly six-year tour.

Discovery Times Square Exposition's claim -- "no museum exhibit in history has captured our hearts and minds like King Tut" -- is hardly an exaggeration.

Tut -- an Egyptian king who died at age 18 or 19, more than 3,000 years ago -- took Manhattan by storm in 1979, when the Metropolitan Museum of Art was one of seven stops on "The Treasures of Tutankhamun" tour. Eight million people in all attended the three-year tour, the first true museum blockbuster. "Tutmania" -- which included Steve Martin's unlikely 1978 hit, recorded with the "Toot Uncommons" -- reigned, and more than 30 years later, that excitement shows little sign of abating.

The show will also incorporate the latest Tut news, including the mystery surrounding his death (how he died is still unknown) and recent findings from DNA testing that revealed further details about the pharaoh's family.

"This is the eighth and final city on the tour," said Mark Lach, senior vice president/creative director at Arts and Exhibitions International and the show's designer. "After this, the objects go back to Egypt forever

Tags: king tut, king tut exhibit, pharaoh